Types of Programming Languages | Computer Bot

Programming languages are classified into the following viz. machine language, assembly language, high level Languages, Fourth Generation Languages (4GL) and Fifth Generation Languages (5GL).

Types of Programming Languages | Computer Bot

Machine Language

Since a CPU is a hardware device, it can only recognize voltages. A voltage, which is relatively high, may be recognized as binary 1 and that is relatively low as binary 0. Therefore instructions to a computer in machine language will consist of Is and Os. The binary digits (I and 0) will in turn be converted to corresponding voltages Thus the processing unit of a computer can directly recognize machine language. Every hardware has a unique machine language.

Assembly Language

Assembly language is known as second-generation language. Each processor has an assembly language consisting of symbolic names for instructions. Each symbolic name has a corresponding machine code consisting of Is and Os. For instance, ADD can represent addition; MVI represents move the number; SUB for subtraction These mnemonics or symbolic names are supplied along with each processor or computer. Therefore, one neel not know the machine language in order to develop the program. Programming can be carried out in assembly language, which is more easily understandable. Assembly language is one step better than machine languagen so far as program friendliness is concerned, but, in actual practice, in order to execute a program, the assembly Language has to be converted into actual machine code. A computer can understand only machine language.

High-Level Languages

High-Level Languages (HLL) is somewhat similar to English. The popular high-level languages are FORTRAN, COBOL, BASIC, C, C++, Java, etc.

The high level languages are known as third generation languages. They allow symbolic naming of operations (like "continue", "return", etc.) They can be translated into several different machine languages by the respective compliers to suit the specific hardware (CPU). Thus, HLLs are not unique to any processor unlike the assembly language or machine language. Conversion of code in HLL. to machine code is carried out by compiler. Many different systems can be programmed in the same manner in a HLL.

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    Fourth Generation Language (4GL)

    These are designed to make high computing power available to non-programmer professionals

    The examples of 4GL are:
    •                     Database Management System (DBMS)
    •                     Graphics generator
    •                     Statistical analysis functions

    The popular DBMS packages such as Oracle, SQL, Access, etc., fall under 4GLS.

    Fifth Generation Language (5GL)

    These are computer languages based on the concepts of expert systems, knowledge based systems and natural Language processing. Expert system development languages such as LISP. Prolog, etc, and visual programming languages fall under 5GLA.

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